Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a behavior problem that is characterized by hyperactivity, inattention, restlessness, and impulsivity and, until recently, was diagnosed primarily in kids. It had been first thought as Hyperkinetic Disorder of Childhood in 1957 and was commonly known as hyperactivity or hyperactive syndrome until it had been renamed ADHD in 1987. The renaming also represented a shift in focus from hyperactive behavior towards the inattention as a major characteristic of this disorder.
The centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) estimates 7 percent of school-age (6-10) children have ADHD, with a ratio of 3 to 1 boys to girls in the United States. White children are apt to have higher rates of ADHD diagnosis than minority children. The definition of ADHD has broadened in recent years. Now, along with school-age children, ADHD is diagnosed in preschool children, adolescents, and adults, which plays a role in the rising prevalence.
The most typical hospital treatment for ADHD is with psychoactive medications, especially ethyl-phenidate (Ritalin) along with other stimulant medications (Cylert, Adderall, and Concerta). Treatment rates have increased enormously in the last few years; in 2004 the Department of Health and Human Services estimated 5 million children ages 5 to 17 were treated for ADHD in 2000-02, up from 2.6 million in 1994. The diagnosis and treatment of ADHD is significantly higher in the usa compared to other countries, but evidence suggests that since the 1990s it was rising in other countries as well, for example, in the United Kingdom.
The causes of ADHD are not well understood, although various theories have already been offered, including dietary, genetic, psychological, and social ones. In the past 2 decades, medical scientists have reported genetic susceptibilities to ADHD and found differences in brain imaging results from those with ADHD and folks without ADHD. Although bio-medical theories of ADHD predominate, the sources of ADHD will always be largely unknown. Some contend that regardless if there are biological differences between children with ADHD and other children, what exactly is observed can be a reflection of differences in temperament as opposed to a disorder that is specific.
ADHD and its treatment have already been controversial at the least since the 1970s.
Critics have expressed anxiety about the drugging of schoolchildren, contending that ADHD is just a label for childhood deviant behavior. Others grant that some children might have a disorder that is neurological but maintain that there’s been an overdiagnosis of ADHD. Every once in awhile some educators and parents have raised concerns about undesireable effects from long-term use of stimulant medications. Child psychiatrists see ADHD as the utmost common childhood psychiatric disorder and consider psychoactive medication treatment as well established and safe. Parent and consumer groups, such as CHADD (Children and Adults with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder), tend to support the medical perspective of ADHD.
Since the 1990s there is a significant increase in the diagnosis and treatment of adult ADHD. Whereas childhood ADHD is usually school or parent identified, adult ADHD seems to be largely self-identified. Some researchers have noted that lots of apparently successful adults seek an ADHD diagnosis and medication treatment due to learning about the disorder from professionals, the media, or others, and then seeing their own life problems reflected within the description of ADHD (e.g., disorganized life, inability to sustain attention, moving from job to job). Adult ADHD remains controversial, however. Many psychiatrists have embraced adult ADHD as a significant problem that is social with claims of tens of vast amounts of dollars in lost productivity and household income because of the disorder, whereas critics have suggested it is “the medicalization of underperformance.”
Sociologists view ADHD as a vintage case associated with medicalization of deviant behavior, defining a previously nonmedical problem as a medical one additionally the treatment of ADHD as a type of medical control that is social.
Whereas some have pointed out that when a challenge becomes medicalized it really is less stigmatized, because its origin sometimes appears as physiological or biomedical in the place of as linked to behavior that is volitional others point out the social consequences of medicalizing children’s behavior problems. Some have suggested that medicalizing deviant behavior as ADHD individualizes complex social problems and allows for powerful forms of medical social control (medications) to be utilized. Secondary gain, accruing social advantages of a diagnosis that is medical is also a problem with ADHD. You will find reports of adolescents seeking an ADHD diagnosis to gain disability that is learning in order to have certain benefits, such as untimed tests or alternative assignments. The definition of ADHD is a prime example of diagnostic expansion, the widening definition of an accepted diagnosis from a sociological view. For many individuals, ADHD is now deemed a lifelong disorder, with an expanding a long time for diagnosis customwritings (from preschool to adult) and a diminished threshold for psychoactive medication treatment. Even though it is possible that the behaviors characteristic of ADHD are increasing because of some type of social cause, it really is much more likely that an escalating amount of people are now being identified, labeled, and treated as having ADHD.